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【养生】小心视力“隐形杀手”黄斑病变

黄斑病变

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眼睛是人体构造中非常精密的器官,就像皮肤或其他身体脆弱的部分一样,眼睛同样需要适当的滋养与防晒。环境中充斥着紫外线及具破坏性的蓝光,在提供影像的同时,也会产生高量自由基对眼睛造成伤害,因此营养失衡、偏食、外食、吸收能力较差的年长族群特别容易因缺乏足够的保护,而产生各种眼睛病变。

老化性黄斑病变不可忽视

老化性黄斑病变不可忽视
眼睛收纳光线的部分是视网膜,位于眼睛后部的一层神经组织薄膜。光线通过角膜进入眼睛,再通过晶体聚焦在视网膜上。视网膜上的神经细胞将光线转化成神经冲动,然后通过视神经被传入脑部。

视网膜的中心部分有一个黄斑,这是视区最精锐的视力部分,因为在这一部分内神经细胞密度最高,同样血液循环再此发展完善,为视网膜提供各种营养物质。一旦黄斑区出现问题,常常出现视力下降、眼前黑影或视物突然模糊。当你的眼睛突然出现一阵模糊,这是黄斑区病变的早期表现。

根据美国老年研究联盟的估计,全美国大约有1300万30岁以上的人有黄斑退化的现象,其中120万人甚至已经到了该病的晚期,进而有失眠的危险。老化性黄斑退化症(AMD)是美国65岁以上人口失明的主要原因之一。这种缓慢渐进性的无痛病症会逐渐侵害眼睛的斑,是位于视网膜中心处的小点,负责让眼睛分辨视觉中的细节。

许多研究结果都显示,适当的饮食可以增强视力,减少视力模糊,减缓黄斑退化的恶化,甚至可以预防黄斑退化症。

叶黄素和玉米黄素预防黄斑退化症
黄斑有最高剂量的“黄斑色素”(即叶黄素与玉米黄素)。研究发现,自然界有600种类胡萝卜素,进入我们食物的有50种,在血液中可发现13种,可是进入眼底的却只剩下叶黄素与玉米黄素。它们沉淀在黄斑和晶体内,具有抗氧化特性,可以保护黄斑与晶体,不至于受光线中的紫外线放射而产生根本的损害。

叶黄素和玉米黄素可预防黄斑退化症,它们也是黄斑中唯一能找到的色素。叶黄素可以降低色差,使视力更精准,保护视网膜在吸收光线时,免受氧化伤害;改善视网膜色素变性;预防白内障、心脏病,阻止乳癌细胞的扩散。

从什么食物中可以补充叶黄素和玉米黄素呢?含有高浓度的叶黄素和玉米黄质的食物有芥蓝、菠菜、蛋黄、玉米。其他如奇异果、葡萄、柳橙、绿皮胡瓜,以及数种南瓜中,则含有30%-50%的叶黄素。

除了补充营养素之外,以下方法也可防止黄斑退化症的发生:
1.戒烟。
2.减少酒精摄入。
3.戴太阳镜。
4.常服鱼油。鱼油中含有的DHA有助于维持视神经细胞膜的完整与健康,是眼睛视网膜中主要的结构脂肪酸。
5.饮用菊花枸杞茶。可明目清热,是中医经典去肝火明目的组方茶。枸杞性味甘甜,可明目、滋养肝肾,含有多种氨基酸、胡萝卜素、维生素B、维生素C,以及钙、磷、铁等物质。在治疗疾病上,对于眼疾,如干眼症、中心性视网膜炎、视神经萎缩等,以及慢性病,如糖尿病、高脂血症、高血压等都有很好的改善作用。
6.避免长期过量接触蓝光。现代人都离不开手机、电脑。长期过量接触蓝光,容易造成视觉疲劳、眼干,甚至引起黄斑病变、白内障等眼疾。建议经常长时间使用电子屏幕的人群最好在手机和电脑上贴一层防蓝光保护膜及选择防蓝光眼镜,可保护眼睛。

花青素可提升夜间视力
坊间流行多种保护眼睛的维生素和天然食品,包括蓝莓、葡萄籽、山桑子、小红莓等四种莓果,据研究显示,莓果当中含有的花青素、类黄酮成分有助于改善夜间视力,并透过协助视紫质(视网膜上的“视紫质”(rhodopsin)是眼睛产生视觉的最基本物质,可加强适应对黑暗弱光的敏感度。)的再生,增进感光细胞对于暗处的适应能力。花青素等多酚类物质属于天然抗氧化剂,可以维护末梢微血管的健康,使微血管能充分供应氧气及养分以滋养眼球。

当检查健康状况时,最主要的一项检查项目就是视力。每年全世界有几百万人在为他们的视力而担忧,除了花青素以外,还有哪些天然营养素可以帮助保护视力呢?

-维生素A:主要负责夜间视力。β胡萝卜素在抗氧化上有显著的功能,可防止视力的根本损害。
-叶黄素:可保护眼睛晶体不受日光的光氧化作用。
-锌:是眼睛中占比最大的微量元素。

知识链接:蓝光是什么?
蓝光其实并不特殊,我们所看到的太阳光里就包含了红橙黄绿青蓝紫七色光。蓝光的波长在400-500纳米之间,比部分可见光都短。波光越短的光,能量越高。蓝光的能量也就相对比较高。能量越高的光线,对眼睛的不良影响越大。例如,西藏地区白内障高发,很大原因是由于纬度、海拔较高,紫外线很强,能直接穿透眼球晶状体,直达眼底视网膜,造成多种眼睛疾病。

【文:简志义】
加拿大多伦多George Brown学院高级营养咨询师。中国保健协会、中国就业培训技术指导中心高级保健咨询师、市场培训师,拥有美国营养保健品30多年市场经验。

转载:《紫荆》杂志
连结:https://bmag.hk/7030
文章日期:2019年4月28日
下载日期:2020年1月8日